The topics included in this list provide more information about some of the things and people described or encountered in the ship journals.  The full list of topics is here in alphabetical order.

Aboriginal land management

Dr Woodforde comments in his diary entry for Wednesday 14 September on the large number of trees which have been burnt. He speculates that this is due to ‘the electric fluid’ (lightning), rather than ‘as some have said, to the burning of the bush by natives’. His argument is not, finally, conclusive, but it does [...]


One of the hazards for ship captains on the voyage to Australia was that seafarers might desert the ship. When seafarers joined a ship they signed the articles, a legal contract that set out their pay and conditions and bound them to complete the voyage. Seafarers who left their ship or refused to work broke [...]

Burial at sea

Scene: burial at sea

Burial at sea in the nineteenth century was necessarily a quick and practical means of disposing of bodies, but it contradicted Christian notions of a ‘good death’. Devout Christian immigrants viewed with dread the prospect of burial at sea, which they described as being ‘thrown into the deep’. Moreover, a watery grave provided no lasting [...]


A word from the Sydney area, in common usage by the 1830s to refer to a dance or ceremony performed by Australian Aboriginal people. The events described by non-Aboriginal people as corroborees varied by cultural group. Pullen’s account appears to be a general description of performances in the period of early settlement, probably by the [...]

Crew and watches

Ships’ crews were divided into work groups called watches. There were typically two groups called the port watch and the starboard watch, named after each side of the ship. They worked shifts that were also called watches. Most shifts were four hours long, so seafarers worked for four hours and then rested for four hours. [...]

Crew wages

When seafarers joined a ship they signed the articles, an employment contract that set out how much they would be paid, what food they would be given, and what hours they would be expected to work. Seafarers’ pay varied from ship to ship in the early nineteenth century. On the Woodford sailing from London to Calcutta [...]

Crossing the equator

On sea voyages, the crossing of the equator is traditionally marked by a ceremony known as ‘crossing the line’. The ceremony is thought to have its origins in a Viking ritual carried out when crossing the 30th parallel. By the seventeenth century the tradition was established in the British and other navies of the world and [...]

Education on board

Literacy levels amongst passengers and crew on emigrant ships of this era varied significantly. Very few of those onboard would have attended school back in Britain. In the earlier part of the 19th century formal education was reserved for those whose parents could afford to pay school fees. Education was beyond the reach of poorer families [...]

English postal system

The_Post_Office_Microcosm_edited The Post Office as drawn by Augustus Pugin Senior and Thomas Rowlandson for Ackermann

Letters to and from home were treasured by early immigrants to South Australia.  In 1836 an extensive postal system already existed in Britain, although it was still too costly for most to use. Mail from foreign countries was carried on a separate network of mail vessels, called ‘ ’, but was also carried informally by [...]

Food on board

Emigrants at dinner

Perhaps nothing was more important to the contentment of migrants on board ships bound for South Australia than the regular and ample supply of good food, prepared well. Often the reality fell well short of the ideal. This was especially the case for steerage passengers, whose food was much inferior to that of cabin-class passengers. Yet [...]

French navigator

The French expedition led by Nicolas Baudin visited Kangaroo Island in January 1803. They circumnavigated the Island in Le Geographe and the schooner Casuarina and produced the first charts of the south east coast of the Island. The crew of Le Geographe spent three weeks on the Island and left an inscription on what is [...]

German immigrants

Angas was active in promoting migration to South Australia to a group of German Lutheran dissenters led by Pastor Kavel. This group faced persecution in their homeland and looked first to South Russia as a refuge, then the United States before being lured to South Australia by Angas.

Hygiene and infants

Of all passengers, infants were the most vulnerable. Infant mortality was high at this time in any case, but on board ship infants were known to be particularly at risk. Much depended on the overall health of the mother and her capacity to breast feed her infant. On or off ships, breast feeding was crucial [...]

Hygiene on board

Keeping clean was a significant challenge on board any emigrant ship in the early nineteenth century.  It was difficult enough for cabin passengers to maintain some form of order and cleanliness in the cramped accommodation allocated to them, but it was much more difficult for the emigrants crowded together in below decks, even in fine [...]

Letters Patent

SRSA: GRG2_64_0_1_1_img001

The result of a long campaign by those who wished to establish a colony according to the principles of systematic colonisation, the South Australia Act of 1834 empowered the King to erect South Australia into one or more British Provinces, and to provide for its colonisation and government.  The preamble to the Act included a [...]


Lighthouses are navigational aids used to mark dangerous stretches of coastline, hazardous shoals and reefs, and safe entries to harbours. The first known lighthouse was built at the entrance to Egypt’s Alexandria harbour in 280 BC. Initially fuelled by timber or coal, by the nineteenth century lighthouses had progressed to more reliable sources of fuel [...]

Liquor on board

In addition to water rations, early nineteenth century crew and passengers received rum, wine and small or ‘ship’ weak beer as a daily allotment. Listed provisions included hogheads or butts of hard spirits and beer and cases of wine. Most hard spirits such as brandy were regarded as medically beneficial and disbursed by the ship’s [...]


Lloyd’s of London is the most important insurance market place in the world. Its origins date back to 1687, when Edward Lloyd opened a coffee shop in London. How did a humble coffee shop grow into the world’s leading market place for insurance? During the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries – the ‘age of mercantilism’ – [...]

marine specimens and artists

When the first of the nine immigrant ships were reaching South Australia, Charles Darwin was on board HMS Beagle on his famous study of the natural world that led to his theory of evolution and the publication three decades later of his book On the Origin of Species. In July 1836 HMS Beagle visited St [...]

Mary Thomas’ poem about the killing of her cat

Scene: pomfrey

  From Mary Thomas’ journal entry of 2 August 1836: Who killed my cat? Suppose I tell; Unless deceived, I know full well; But you, perhaps, may guess the plot When I have told you who ‘twas not. ‘Twas not the captain nor the mate, For they, I’m sure, had no such hate, But both [...]

Matthew Flinders

Matthew Flinders commanded HMS Investigator and charted the coast of the continent that was then known as New Holland from April 1801 to June 1803. His expedition produced the first complete chart of the continent and the first views of the southern coast. The results of his exploration were published in 1814 and paved the way [...]


Young’s Nautical Dictionary of 1863 defined mutiny as ‘a kind of piratical revolt of seamen’. It was a vague definition. More than 150 years later The Oxford Companion to Ships and the Sea defines mutiny as ‘a resistance by force to recognized authority. … In its strict legal sense the term implies the use of force [...]


Image of a ship's chronometer housed in its wooden box

By 1836 the major problems for mariners finding their way across the oceans had been solved. There had been great developments in exploring the earth and producing charts to guide shipping. Dutch seafarers had sailed from Europe south past Africa’s Cape of Good Hope and east through the Indian Ocean.  Since 1606 they had encountered [...]

Parable of the Good Samaritan

The Biblical parable (moral story) of the Good Samaritan appears in the Gospel According to St Luke, chapter 10 and describes Jesus telling the story to a group of his followers. Jesus uses the parable to explain what is meant by the injunction to ‘love thy neighbour as thyself’. The story concerns a man who is travelling along a road [...]

Personal hygiene

1849 sketch of men bathing on deck.

The greatest challenge all emigrants faced was access to fresh water. In fine weather there was any amount of sea water available, but fresh water was strictly limited and carefully rationed. Theoretically, all ships embarked with sufficient fresh water for the lengthy voyage ahead, but both the quantity and the quality depended on many contingencies, [...]

Pets on board

Scene: Setter

For many, starting a new life in South Australia would not be complete without the family pet. Cats and dogs provided comfort and companionship for passengers on the long journey. Cats were also useful for keeping rats and mice at bay. Some pets fared better than others. Eliza Randall and her family emigrated from England [...]

Pioneer livestock for the new colony

Planning and preparation were critical to establishing any new colony. South Australia’s founding fathers were well aware of the problems experienced in earlier Australian settlements, including Governor Arthur Phillip’s struggle to feed New South Wales in its first two years. They also believed that Australia’s native animals were unsuited to domestication, and its plants to [...]


By the 1830s, the ‘golden age’ of piracy had passed. The power of the feared Barbary corsairs, pirates operating off the north African coast, was waning. Many Caribbean buccaneers, based in the West Indies, had moved from preying on Spanish shipping to involvement in the slave trade, a trade which by the 1830s was illegal [...]

Portable soup

Portable soup was a method for preserving stock; it was a precursor to stock cubes. The soup was made by boiling bones and vegetables for an extraordinary amount of time until the liquid evaporated to leave a dry jelly. The soup could be later rehydrated on board ship. The British Navy first let a contract [...]

Provisioning the voyage

Emigrating to South Australia meant months on the ocean with limited access to outside goods. Ship masters were responsible for stocking the ships with stores for crew, passengers and even livestock.  Provisioning a ship meant providing enough fresh and preserved food, water, soap and medical comforts for all to survive the four-month or more voyage. As [...]

Rio de Janiero

Captains sailing from Europe to Australia in the 1830s tried to avoid calling into ports. Stops cost time and they cost money for port charges and supplies. They brought the threat of disease and the possibility that crew might abscond. However if they were short of water or food, ships would stop at Cape Town [...]

ritual scarring

The making of deliberate raised scars, usually in patterns across the back, shoulders or chest, was a common practice in some regions of Aboriginal Australia. It usually marked a stage of initiation.

Robinson Crusoe

Daniel Defoe’s novel Robinson Crusoe was first published in 1719. The main character, Robinson Crusoe, is a castaway who spends 28 years on an isolated tropical island. He encounters cannibals, captives and mutineers before being rescued. By the nineteenth century the term ‘Robinson Crusoe’ was virtually synonymous with the term ‘castaway’, and conjured up an [...]

Royal Marines

The Royal Marines date their origins to 1664 when 1200 soldiers were recruited to a force known as the Lord Admiral’s Regiment and distributed through the fleet. Until 1755 marine regiments were formed for specific conflicts and disbanded. In that year, however, the British Navy was reorganized and marines became a permanent force with numbers [...]

Salvage at sea

When a ship founders in wild seas or runs aground, the first priority is to secure the safety of survivors. Only then does attention turn to salvaging the ship, its parts (if it has broken up) and its cargo. None of the ships bound for South Australia in 1836 was wrecked. Indeed, in the nineteenth [...]

sea sickness

Scene: Seasickness

Few of the passengers aboard the ships bound for South Australia in 1836 were seasoned sailors. Seasickness was a hazard of sea voyages, even for sailors, and was particularly common in the early part of the passage in the rough English Channel, while sailing through the Bay of Biscay, and during stormy weather. As the [...]

Sea voyages

Emigrants at dinner

The decision to emigrate was final. For most assisted emigrants in the nineteenth century there was no prospect of returning home. Very few had travelled far from home and their journeys began with great apprehension. Emigrants’ first decision was when to leave home to meet their ship. It was difficult because few expected a ship [...]

Severe storms in spring 1836

While storms are common in the Channel, both the John Pirie and the Duke of York had the misfortune to be caught by a prolonged period of intense storm activity. Captain Morgan of the Duke of York noted they had six weeks of ‘contrary weather’ after leaving London on 26 February, with the ship still in English waters well into the [...]

Shipboard discipline

Ships were hierarchical. Captains had complete authority and officers looked down on their crews. Seafarers traditionally suffered from a bad reputation: they were seen as drunken, dishonest and lazy. Discipline was rough, verbal abuse and violence were common, and because they were trapped onboard seafarers were very vulnerable to bullying. Crew could be bashed by officers [...]

shipboard weddings

Charles Howard was a minister of the Church of England and authorised to officiate at weddings. It appears that in this case Governor Hindmarsh provided marriage licences to expedite the process, as on board ship it would not have been possible to meet the normal requirements that the banns, or notice of the couple’s intention [...]

shipboard work

An able bodied seaman could practice all the skills of his trade when he could ‘hand, reef and steer’. ‘Hand and reef’ meant that he could work the sails. He could climb masts 30 metres or higher. He could hand or furl sails, that is, draw them into compact rolls to stop them catching wind. He [...]

Ships’ rigging

Ships were broadly classified according to the way they were rigged – that is, according to their masts and  and the sails they carried. The ships that sailed for South Australia in 1836 included barques, ,  and a fully-rigged . The Africaine, the Cygnet, the Duke of York, the Lady Mary Pelham and the Tam O’Shanter were rigged as barques [...]


A pair of shark jaws showing razor sharp teeth

There was much for emigrants to fear in the 1830s. For almost all of them, the voyage from Britain to Australia was their first time at sea and for many it was the first time they had left home. They were sailing to an unknown coast on the other side of the world. One of [...]

Signal flags

Before the advent of radio and Morse code seafarers used signal flags to communicate. The first record of British ships using signal flags comes from naval directions that were written in 1653. That system provided for five flags and only a very few directions could be signalled. More complex systems of signalling were developed and in [...]

Slave trade

It would not have been unusual for ships sailing to the Australian colonies in the 1830s to encounter slave ships. The seas between the West Coast of Africa and the Americas were the ‘middle passage’ in the Atlantic triangular slave trade. Manufactured goods (including ‘slave beads’, cloth, guns and ammunition) were transported from Europe to [...]


Smallpox is an acute contagious disease caused by the variola virus. It is one of the most devastating diseases known to humans, and most of those who survived it were marked for life with deep pitted scars (pockmarks), most noticeable on the face. A smallpox epidemic spread down the River Murray from the colony of [...]

South Australian Association

The South Australian Association was founded in December 1833 to promote the concepts of systematic colonisation first proposed by Edward Gibbon Wakefield and to persuade the British Government to establish a new colony in southern Australia. From the Association’s rooms in the Adelphi near Charing Cross energetic members like Robert Gouger, Robert Torrens and George [...]

South Australian Colonization Commission

The South Australian Colonization Commission was created in 1834 with authority from the British Government to raise funds through land sales and other means to establish the province of South Australia as a self-supporting venture. The Government required the Commission to riase £35,000 in preliminary land sales and to have secured an emergency fund of [...]

South Australian Company

img-221122428-0001 south australian company

A number of wealthy British merchants, including George Fyfe Angas, formed the South Australian Company in 1835. This joint stock company was a reaction to the slow take up of land orders for the province of South Australia.

Spanish dollar

Also known as a ‘piece of eight’, this large silver coin was minted in Spain from 1497. Widely used in the Americas, Europe and the Far East, it became a form of world currency and was widely used in trade, including within the British Empire, where there was often a shortage of coinage. It was [...]

Stations in life

Stations in life: the belief that the position in society into which you were born was ordained by God, and not to be questioned. In the 1840s one verse of the popular hymn All Things Bright and Beautiful expressed it this way: The rich man in his castle. The poor man at his gate, God made them [...]

Surgeons and medicine

An image of the surgeon's kit used by Dr Everard on board the Africaine, 1836.

In crowded passenger ships, disease could bring disaster. The main killers were diarrhoea, measles, whooping cough and scarlet fever. The most common, minor complaints were constipation, headaches and sea sickness. The causes of diseases were not well understood. By 1800 100,000 people in Britain had been vaccinated against smallpox using the cowpox virus but in [...]


Surveying is the practice of determining the relative positions of points on the earth’s surface and showing them in a usable form, such as a map or chart. To achieve their goals, surveyors measure distances, horizontal angles, vertical angles and heights and use elements of geometry, engineering, trigonometry, mathematics and physics. At the time Colonel [...]

Sydney in 1836

In 1836 Sydney was a busy administrative and mercantile city, the hub of the colony of New South Wales. The colony had been established in 1788, and in 1836 it covered, on paper, about half the continent, including  what are today Queensland, Victoria and the Northern Territory. In practice it included the ‘settled’ coastal and [...]

The Portuguese Empire

The ships sailing for South Australia in 1836 passed the Cape Verde Islands, the Desertas, Madeira and Porto Santo - all part of the Portuguese Empire. Founded on maritime exploration in the fifeteenth and sixteenth centuries and built on trade in gold, spices, slaves and sugar, Portugal’s empire at it height included territories in Africa, South America (notably Brazil), India, the East [...]

The Proclamation

On 28 December, Governor John Hindmarsh, accompanied by other officials from the Buffalo, came ashore at Holdfast Bay. In the heat of the summer afternoon, under an old gum tree, Stevenson read the words of the Proclamation of the Province of South Australia: PROCLAMATION By His EXCELLENCY JOHN HINDMARSH, Knight of the Royal Hanoverian Guelphic [...]

The Register

South Australia’s first newspaper was the South Australian gazette and colonial register, later titled the Register. The Register was founded by friends and partners Robert Thomas and George Stevenson in London sometime in 1836 under the partnership name R. Thomas & Co. Stevenson was responsible for content, Thomas for printing. The first issue of the newspaper was printed in London [...]

The tropics

1849 sketch of men bathing on deck.

The ‘tropics’ is a band of calm weather around the equator where the trade winds of the north and south meet. This phenomenon, known universally by sailors as the ‘doldrums’, produces a peculiar set of weather conditions characterised by high temperatures and light to calm winds. During the 1800s sailing ships relied solely on wind [...]

Toilet facilities

Managing human waste on board ships was extremely important for the health of all on board. Regulations increasingly governed aspects of ship board life, but in 1836 they were yet to apply to all emigrant vessels, especially those chartered privately. Nevertheless, most captains were aware of the dangers of infectious and debilitating diseases like dysentery [...]

Treating Mrs Chandler

From the brief details we have it is impossible to do more than guess at the nature of Mrs Chandler’s illness. The John Pirie diarist tells us that she complained of pains in her head and her side and that she was behaving very erratically before throwing herself overboard.  Despite the obvious trauma of a near [...]

Washing clothes

None of the fresh water was available for washing clothing or linen. Passengers either washed their clothing in sea water, generally only on one or two designated days each week (always weather permitting), or they gathered rain water in buckets or from the sails for washing. They either supplied their own soap, (and did their [...]

Water provisions

As one of the key provisions needed to sustain life at sea, water had to be potable (drinkable) and portable (easy to store). Large casks or ‘butts’ of fresh water were brought on board as part of the initial provisions and stored in the hold. These water rations would have quickly turned stale. Once stale, sugar, [...]

Widows and widowers

In the 1830s it was assumed that all women would wish to marry. In fact they had little alternative, unless they were independently wealthy. Very few women could earn enough to keep themselves decently housed and fed without some assistance, since women’s wages were very low – generally half those of men, even where the [...]

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Comments or Questions:

7 Responses to “Topics”

  1. Carmel Cross May 22, 2011 at 8:59 am #

    as I am a decendant of Thomas Lipson, I found it very interesting
    reading about the trip out from England.
    Carmel cross

  2. patrick March 19, 2011 at 10:51 am #

    its me again (#2) why did they do this voyage in the first place and why did children come on the voyage?

    • Mandi March 19, 2011 at 8:49 pm #

      Hi Patrick
      Thank you for your interesting questions. If you go to the ‘topics’ section in the website you will find information to help answer your questions. Stay tuned to coming weeks where we will explore food and navigation in more detail.

  3. patrick March 19, 2011 at 10:42 am #

    it,s me again, I was wondering how they knew where they were, wich way they were going and where australia was.

  4. patrick March 19, 2011 at 10:37 am #

    1.what food did the people on board the ship have to eat and how did it get there. long did it take to reach australia

  5. Brian Beck March 13, 2011 at 6:51 am #


    I have a considerable amount of info on the Broadbent family (Buffalo passenfers). If you are interested, where do I send it? It is in digital form, so I could email it.


    Brian Beck

    • Kristy March 16, 2011 at 4:55 pm #

      Hi Brian,
      I have sent you my email details. Did you also receive the email I sent through 3 weeks ago? If my emails are not getting through to you then please do not hesitate to call me at History SA.
      regards, Kristy – History SA.

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