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Journal Entries written by: Dr John Woodforde

Saturday 7 May 1836

[, on board the wrote.]

1 May to 8 May, 1836

On Sunday the 1st. of May, 1836, we left the City Canal, Blackwall and were towed down the river in the Nelson Steamer to the [tooltip color=”grey” text=”The Nore is a sandbank in the mouth of the Thames River outside London. It was a hazard to shipping so a lightship (a ship carrying a light similar to a lighthouse) was anchored there from 1793. The light warned ships away from the sandbank and provided a marker that showed ships where they were.”] Nore [/tooltip] where a contrary wind compelled us to anchor at 7. p.m.  At 8 p.m. the breeze freshened and increased to a gale which detained us till Tuesday when we again weighed and made fast in the [tooltip color=”grey” text=”A steamer is a steam ship or steam boat. Small paddle steamers were used to tow ships in confined waters such as the Thames estuary.”] Steamer [/tooltip]. We finally cast off from her at the North Foreland on the 4th. at 1 p.m. and made sail with a moderate and fair breeze down Channel, taking our departure from the Lizard on the following Sunday.

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Tuesday 10 May 1836

[, on board the wrote.]

On the 9th. and 10th. we passed many fragments of wrecks, some covered with barnacles and others of recent date. From this time nothing worth noting occurred till Sunday 15th

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Sunday 15 May 1836

[, on board the wrote.]

From this time nothing worth noting occurred till Sunday 15th. when at 5 a.m. we made the Island of Madeira which we passed about six leagues to the Westward with beautiful weather, but the distance was too great to observe any other feature of the Island than its extreme height, the summit appearing far above […]

[ Read the full journal for: Sunday 15 May 1836 ]

Wednesday 25 May 1836

[, on board the wrote.]

On Wednesday 25th. we saw St. Antonio – one of the Cape de Verds – and on the following day, the Island of Brava.

[ Read the full journal for: Wednesday 25 May 1836 ]

Friday 3 June 1836

[, on board the wrote.]

June 3rd. Lat.4.35.

We [tooltip color=”grey” text=”To speak a ship is to communicate with it by voice or signals.”] spoke [/tooltip] the ship ‘Zenobia’ from Calcutta and it being [tooltip color=”grey” text=”Without wind.”] calm [/tooltip] the Captain and several of the Officers dined on board of us. Mr. Bluett, the Surgeon of the Zenobia, came to see me as I was very ill labouring under severe Palpitations, the result of excessive vomiting. I did not conquer the seasickness till seven weeks after leaving England and by this time I was reduced to a perfect skeleton.  Bluett promised to call on my dear Friends in London and give them some account of me as I was too ill to write….

[ Read the full journal for: Friday 3 June 1836 ]

Wednesday 8 June 1836

[, on board the wrote.]

On Wednesday 8th. June we crossed the Equator and the usual absurd ceremony was performed on all the uninitiated except myself – my state of health and giving the Ship’s Company a [tooltip color=”grey” text=”A form of British currency, the gold sovereign has been minted to exacting specifications since 1817. Each sovereign contains exactly 7.3224 grams of gold (22 carats). It was worth nominally one pound.”]sovereign[/tooltip] exempted me –

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Saturday 18 June 1836

[, on board the wrote.]

We rounded Cape of Good Hope on the 12th. of July. On approaching the Latitude of the Cape we were attended by hundreds of albatrosses and Cape pigeons. I succeeded in taking several of the Latter with a hook and line but the former were far too wary. These birds were our constant companions till […]

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Wednesday 17 August 1836

[, on board the wrote.]

This [Amsterdam Island] was the last land we saw till Wednesday 17th. August when we made Kangaroo Island. It was very indistinct and the weather being thick and squally we again lost sight of it till the following day when at 8 a.m. we saw the whole of the South Side of the island. The […]

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Saturday 20 August 1836

[, on board the wrote.]

…  I started after breakfast to explore it with my gun on my shoulder… The soil being very poor and sandy at the mouth of the river but gradually improved as I proceeded up so that we may expect better land in the interior. I have had tolerable sport with my gun shooting sufficient seafowl for the Mess Dinner tomorrow. Returned on board at 5 p.m. and having very satisfactorily appeased my appetite I shall now turn in.

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Friday 26 August 1836

[, on board the wrote.]

Friday, 26th. August.

I again went on shore this morning with Jacob – a young surveyor – for the purpose of shooting at salt lagoon about eight miles along the shore and a more unpleasant and fatiguing walk I never remember. The heat was excessive and our pocket pistols were soon exhausted. We made a diligent but ineffectual search for fresh water, but I was determined to proceed to the lagoon which we reached about midday. Here we were very much disappointed finding instead a fine sheet of water covered with wild fowl, a miserable salt swamp – merely an inlet of the Bay – with nothing on it but screeching curlews and these so wary that we had no chance of killing any. The Island even at this Season swarms with mosquitoes and today they have bitten me so unmercifully, giving me rather an unpleasant idea of the pleasures of the summer season. On our return we penetrated a little way into the bush and here found the trees very similar to those at the Eastern side of the Bay. The Clematis grows in great abundance which together with a species of Mimosa, having very much the smell of May, imparts a delicious fragrance to the air. This, however, does not compensate for the want of water which is here very distressing. The wells that have been dug near the tents producing after much labour nothing but salt water. I hope to God we shall find better cheer when we visit the main – this is dreary enough and I begin to sigh for Old England with all her faults and all the dear Friends I have left there.

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Saturday 27 August 1836

[, on board the wrote.]

Saturday 27th August.

Some of the settlers came on board this morning bringing with them for sale two of a small species of opossum called by them “Wallobees”. These animals are anything but tempting to the sight having much the appearance of an enormous rat. They, like the opossum and kangaroo, are provided with a pouch for the reception of their young on the appearance of danger, and it is a curious fact that most of the quadrupeds of this country have the same appendage. Disgusting as these animals were to our eyes they were excessively grateful to the palate after having lived so long on ships’ fare. I breakfasted on board the “Duke of York” off hot rolls and ham so that I have come off sumptuously in the provider line today and stand well in the way of doing so tomorrow as Hill and myself with the boat’s crew have just caught two superb fish in the seine. There must have been a great mortality among the kangaroos on this island since Flinder’s time or he must have mistaken the walloby for them as we have not seen one and the Sealers say there are none

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Sunday 28 August 1836

[, on board the wrote.]

The Bay has presented today a singular scene of bustle and merriment on the occasion of a wedding on board the ‘John Pirie’. The ceremony was performed by the Captain after which the happy pair proceeded to the tents where the marriage dinner was prepared. Our crew was invited to the feast which wound up with one or two amicable fights, amongst which the Bride and Bridegroom were conspicuous. The afternoon being very fine I went on shore for a walk but was very soon driven on board again by my implacable enemies – the mosquitoes. They use me very ill and cause me so much irritation on my skin that I am obliged to scratch for half an hour at a time and the consequence is that the bites soon degenerate into ulcers. I have been diligent in my search for Butterflies for dear Melliora but have, as yet, been very unsuccessful. There are, however, some very good shells on the beach and I hope soon to make a collection for her.

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Monday 29 August 1836

[, on board the wrote.]

Went on shore this morning to see a patient at the tents and after refusing a pressing invitation from Mr. Bird’s Eye, one of the Settlers, to dine on walloby and new potatoes, returned on board to clean my gun and make preparations for an early start to the river tomorrow. I picked up two […]

[ Read the full journal for: Monday 29 August 1836 ]

Tuesday 30 August 1836

[, on board the wrote.]

Started at daybreak with Field and Jacob to shoot along the banks of the river and to see something of the interior of the Island. After the first two miles we were gratified by finding a flat of very superior soil to any we had seen extending many miles on each side of the stream. […]

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Wednesday 31 August 1836

[, on board the wrote.]

Went on board the ‘Duke of York” at 7 a.m. this morning and was much pleased to find my patient better. Returned to my own vessel after breakfast and have been mending old clothes best part of the morning. The Sealers again visited us this morning bringing with them two native men and a woman belonging to the Main. These men are brothers and one of them is the father of the woman who lives with the Sealers on this Island. They were much better looking than we had expected and probably are a good specimen of their tribe – their stature is about 5’6” and their limbs very small – their complexion dark copper-coloured – their features are coarse but exceedingly good-humoured, occasionally giving way to immoderate fits of laughter especially when we gave them brandy and tobacco of which they seemed very fond. They have large flat noses and exceedingly long beards – their hair is not woolly. They are a very ignorant and indolent set of men depending entirely on their women for the means of subsistence which are very uncertain and which probably accounts for their emaciated appearance.

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Thursday 1 September 1836

[, on board the wrote.]

Repeated my visit to the river and have had excellent sport, but was hurried on board by the appearance of a ship in offing which we took to be the long expected “Cygnet”, but found, on her showing her number, that it was the “Pelham” that had put to sea two days before – we […]

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Friday 2 September 1836

[, on board the wrote.]

Went on board the “Duke of York” and as Frill [Field?] was very ill remained on board all the rest of the day.

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Saturday 3 September 1836

[, on board the wrote.]

I have not left the vessel today as it has been blowing a gale and the weather has been in other respects as disagreeable as it was yesterday. Field, I am happy to say, is better. My occupations have been reading, mending old clothes and cleaning my gun.

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Sunday 4 September 1836

[, on board the wrote.]

This morning I heard that the “Duke of York” was to sail tomorrow for Van Diemen’s Land, consequently I have remained on board writing a letter (No. 1) to my mother.

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Monday 5 September 1836

[, on board the wrote.]

Before breakfast I again visited my patients on board the “Duke of York” and at the tents on shore I have had the satisfaction of dismissing from the list two which I am endeavouring to get sent to the hospital at Hobart Town. One of these is suffering from a severe attack of rheumatism and […]

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Tuesday 6 September 1836

[, on board the wrote.]

… We have hired one of the Sealers and his two native women to go to [tooltip color=”grey” text=”the Mainland”] the Main [/tooltip] with us, and as they have capital dogs they will answer a double purpose, that of providing fresh food, and by means of the women conciliating the natives should they prove hostile. The Sealers living on Kangaroo Island are Englishmen – some of them having deserted their ships to settle here – and others being runaway convicts from Sydney. We were given to understand that they were little better than pirates, but were agreeably surprised to find them a civil set of men and they will be of much use in forming a colony here. For their honesty I cannot answer as we do not put temptation in their way. Some of these men have whale boats in which they frequently cross over to Cape Jervis from which place they have at different times stolen the women who now live with them. These women are very clever at snaring game and fish for their Keepers whilst the men remain at their little farms on the Island. One of these by the name of Walland has a farm about seven miles up the river which does him great credit as he has several acres of flourishing wheat and most of the English vegetables. He has been fourteen years on the Island and is called the “Governor” – he has two native wives.

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Wednesday 7 September 1836

[, on board the wrote.]

We left Nepean Bay at 9 a.m. this morning to proceed to Gulf St. Vincent, but at 3 p.m. it fell so calm that we were obliged to drop anchor about halfway across the passage – There was a fine breeze all the morning but as it was not fair, which together with the tide […]

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Thursday 8 September 1836

[, on board the wrote.]

Weighed at daybreak and after a very pleasant sail came to at 1 p.m. just under the western side of Cape Jervis in a Bay affording good shelter except for North-West winds. The land from the ship had a very promising appearance and when we landed, which a party of us did after dinner we […]

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Friday 9 September 1836

[, on board the wrote.]

We weighed at daybreak and ran in a mile nearer the beach and after breakfast Hill and I with the jolly-boat’s crew took the seine and our guns on shore, but with both were equally unsuccessful. We however had more time for examining the country and the more we saw of it the more we […]

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Saturday 10 September 1836

[, on board the wrote.]

Remained on board all day as the weather was not tempting and I felt fatigued with yesterday’s ramble. The women returned this morning with a fine kangaroo part of which Hill and myself dined off. All the rest of the Officers dined on shore at the tents. They have been busy digging up a piece […]

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Sunday 11 September 1836

[, on board the wrote.]

8 p.m. Sunday, 11th September. Our Sealer and his women were dispatched this morning to Encounter Bay to endeavour to engage some of the natives to take care of the garden during our cruize. I have again remained at home all day. The weather is again fair, the wind having moderated.

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Monday 12 September 1836

[, on board the wrote.]

9 p.m. Monday, 12th September. This morning Field and I started with the jolly-boat after breakfast to try our luck with the hook and line and in the course of two hours we caught sufficient fish for all hands. Among them were the Bream, Cavaheros Rock-Cod and a very curious looking fish called by our […]

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Tuesday 13 September 1836

[, on board the wrote.]

10 p.m. Tuesday, 13th September I have spent this day much in the same way as yesterday i.e., in the forenoon preparing fishing gear and the afternoon in making use of it and have been equally successful. “The Parrot-Fish” has been eaten by some of the crew and has proved wholesome.

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Wednesday 14 September 1836

[, on board the wrote.]

Wednesday 14th September.

This morning, the weather being beautiful, Field and I started after breakfast with our guns and penetrated nearly three miles into the interior which considering the height of the hills we found a very long and fatiguing walk. We met with no sport but the views from the top of the hills were beautiful. The soil in the valleys is excellent but that on the hills is shallow and mixed with rock and stones of many kinds, viz: lime-stone, coarse slate and an inferior kind of marble. We found some fine Cypress and Cedar trees, likewise daisies similar to those found in English meadows. Flinders mentions a peculiar feature of the country which we found very striking in today’s excursion. I allude to the combustion which a great part of the trees have undergone and which I can only attribute to the passage of the Electric fluid and not, as some have said, to the burning of the bush by the natives. My reasons for coming to this conclusion are first, that the same phenomenon exists in Kangaroo Is. Where there are no natives: and secondly, that the trees thus found are for the most part isolated, there being no traces of combustion around them – indeed I have in many instances found a large tree reduced almost to charcoal surrounded by and close to a cluster of others in a state of vigorous health. There are many speculations on this subject which will be, I doubt not, soon set at rest. If lightning had been the cause we shall most probably see its most recent effects in the summer and our intercourse with the natives will satisfy us as to its being their handywork or not. We dined at the tents and then came off.

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Thursday 15 September 1836

[, on board the wrote.]

9 p.m. Thursday, 15th Sept.

After we had turned in last night Captain Martin came on board on his way to Kangaroo Island from his trip up the Gulf. He gave us a very favourable account of the country and the few natives he met with were peaceable – but as we are going the same road in a day or two we shall be able to judge for ourselves. After breakfast Martin, Hill and myself went on shore to the tents and had not long been there before our Sealer returned from Encounter Bay bringing with him eight of the natives who promised to take care of our garden. These men are much the same in appearance and belong to the same tribe as the two we saw on the Island. There were no women with them except those belonging to the Sealers. It appears that the small-pox commits great ravages against them as three of them were deeply pitted and one has lost an eye from the same disease. Two of them had congenital malformations – the most singular – of the arm, there being in the place of that useful member a shrivelled stump not more than ten inches in length with three small appendages the rudiments of fingers at the end of it. They are all more or less tattooed in a very rude way, the principal incisions being on the back and two very large ones of a similar shape over each blade-bone. Their faces are free from these mutilations which are made with pieces of flint. This tribe is a very small one – a great number being carried off yearly by disease and a still greater number being put to death shortly after their birth. They hold a …[pages torn from journal]

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Saturday 24 September 1836

[, on board the wrote.]

…The [tooltip color=”grey” text=”A light, narrow ship’s boat that could be rowed or sailed.”] gig [/tooltip] has returned without having found a passage to the mouth of the river – the day being too far gone to admit of a further search this evening…

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Sunday 25 September 1836

[, on board the wrote.]

Sunday, 25th September.

Both boats went away this morning to find the mouth of the river but they have as yet been baffled in their search – a deep channel was seen this afternoon from the mast-head taking a circuitous course nearly parallel with the shore and Field who took the jolly-boat to sound in it believes it to be that of the river, he does not, however, think that there is depth enough for the [tooltip color=”grey” text=”A sailing vessel with two square-rigged masts.”] Brig [/tooltip] as in some parts of it he only found five feet at low-water, what the rise and fall is we have not ascertained. Colonel Light intends to make an early start tomorrow and I hope he will be more successful as it is far from pleasant lying at so great a distance from the land without being able to get a run. Bradley, our Boatswain, has been discharged from duty today for insolence to the [tooltip color=”grey” text=”First officer directly coming under the command of the captain. Ships’ Mates were responsible for supervising watches, crew, navigation and safety equipment, and sometimes even served as the ship’s doctor.”] First-Mate [/tooltip]. This is the first rumpus we had had since we left England.

[ Read the full journal for: Sunday 25 September 1836 ]

Monday 26 September 1836

[, on board the wrote.]

9 p.m. Monday, 25th September. Colonel Light has at length found the mouth of the river which is a considerable one, but he of opinion that there is a larger one higher up the Gulf described by Captain Jones and as it would detain us two or three weeks to survey this one properly he […]

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Tuesday 27 September 1836

[, on board the wrote.]

…Colonel Light is of opinion that we have passed all the rivers on this side of the Gulf and that the one he went to yesterday is the one described by Captain Jones – the distance we kept from the shore while running along it renders this highly probable. Colonel Light intends to retrace his steps and while the [tooltip color=”grey” text=”A sailing vessel with two square-rigged masts.”] Brig [/tooltip] keeps at a safe distance the surveying boat is to run close in so that nothing in the shape of a river can thus escape us…At daybreak this morning I went with the boat to haul up the net which we had left in the water all night – we found it full of fish but our disappointment to see nothing but dog-fish and sting-ray. Of the latter, bad and coarse as it was, we ate heartily at breakfast. It is not unlike Skait and I have ordered some of it to be hung for a day or two to give it a fair trial. The former were a very disgusting looking fish resembling the dog-fish of the English shores in all except the head which was bony and in shape like a gurnet. Anything in the shape of fresh provisions is so acceptable that, uninviting as these fish are, we intend having some fried for breakfast tomorrow. We have had no kangaroo for some time not having had an opportunity of landing our women and dogs.

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Wednesday 28 September 1836

[, on board the wrote.]

9 p.m. Lat 34.46 Wednes. 28th We weighed at 9 a.m. and returned to our last anchorage where we came to at 1 p.m. The Surveying Boat kept close inshore but has discovered nothing new. There is a great doubt after all as to there being a river here as what was taken for the […]

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Thursday 29 September 1836

[, on board the wrote.]

Thursday, 29th September…Pullen has returned with the surveying boat but is not certain as to the non-existence of a river, having seen a deep wide creek which he did not examine. Captain Light intends going himself tomorrow…

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Friday 30 September 1836

[, on board the wrote.]

Friday, 30th September. I have not left the ship today. Colonel Light and Pullen left early this morning. It has been blowing a fresh breeze from the North-West all day which has been very warm with a fine clear sky. The thermometer has risen to 700 in the cabin.

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Saturday 1 October 1836

[, on board the wrote.]

Colonel returned early this morning without having discovered any river, but there are many creeks running inland from the Channel in some of which the water is brackish…

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Sunday 2 October 1836

[, on board the wrote.]

Sunday, 2nd October. About 9 p.m. last night the wind again shifted to the S.W. and increased to a strong gale which has blown ever since. As the wind was right on shore we let go another anchor and veered away so much cable that this morning we ran foul of the surveying boat that […]

[ Read the full journal for: Sunday 2 October 1836 ]

Monday 3 October 1836

[, on board the wrote.]

Monday, 3rd October. Some of our Officers having imagined they saw the mouth of a larger river about two miles to the southward of us, we weighed anchor after breakfast and the Brig proceeded in the direction indicated while another party which I joined, walked along the shore a distance of six miles without finding […]

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Tuesday 4 October 1836

[, on board the wrote.]

9 p.m. Tuesday, 4th October.
Remained on board all day. Colonel Light has been four miles up the river with which he is much pleased – the water is very good and it abounds with teal and other wild fowl. On the plain to the right of it he discovered several fresh water lagoons some of which are nearly a mile in length. The mouth of the stream is Lat. 34.59.

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Wednesday 5 October 1836

[, on board the wrote.]

9 p.m. Wednesday, 5th October.
I have not been on shore today having been busy [tooltip color=”grey” text=”casting lead for his gun”] casting balls[/tooltip], cleaning my gun and mending my [tooltip color=”grey” text=”underwear”] inexpressibles[/tooltip]. Claughton and Jacob who took their guns up the river this morning have returned with two brace and a half of Teal – the second fresh meal we have fallen in with this week. This worth recording as fresh meals come so few and far between and I am sorry to say some of the men are beginning to suffer for the want of them.

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Thursday 6 October 1836

[, on board the wrote.]

9 p.m. Thursday, 6th October. We got our anchor up shortly after 6 a.m. this morning and made a start for Yankelilah [Yankalilla] where we intended to take in water. The weather was fine for the first hour or so, but after an hour’s calm a fresh breeze from the N.W. sprung up which shifted […]

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Friday 7 October 1836

[, on board the wrote.]

…We landed our women the day before yesterday to hunt and this evening they made their appearance on the beach when four volunteers started in the [tooltip color=”grey” text=”A light, narrow ship’s boat that could be rowed or sailed.”] gig [/tooltip] to bring them off but from the height of the rollers were unable to reach the shore. We fear the poor women may be suffering from hunger as they were scantily provided with provisions and we were to have picked them up at Yankalilah [Yankalilla], but provided they have been successful in hunting which I hope to God they have they will not be so badly off always having the means of kindling a fire.

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Saturday 8 October 1836

[, on board the wrote.]

7 p.m. Saturday, 8th October.
The wind having moderated a boat was sent off for the women – they had caught no game as they and the dogs were too hungry to hunt – a few roots were the only food they had had. After breakfast Claughton, Jacob, Pullen and myself landed with our guns and went up the banks of the river in search of wild fowl with which it was actually swarming but they were so wild and wary that we were very unsuccessful only having killed between  us a duck and brace of teal. There are several lagoons, or what we should call marshes in England, in the neighbourhood of the river, in these wild fowl resort to breed and this is apparently breeding-season as we picked up a cygnet and young duck neither of them fledged. On our return we shot a brace of quails and a beautiful rail resembling our landrail in all but plumage which was much finer…

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Sunday 9 October 1836

[, on board the wrote.]

Sunday, 9th October.

Claughton and I again went on shore after dinner with our guns and killed sufficient fowl with yesterday’s sport for two meals. The great scarcity of fresh provisions from which most of us have suffered more or less could alone justify our thus breaking the [tooltip color=”grey” text=”For most Christians the Sabbath is Sunday, the day they celebrate their religion. For other Christians and for Jewish people the Sabbath is Saturday.”] Sabbath [/tooltip] and I feel confident that neither of us would have done it for mere pleasure. We had expended all our ammunition and were returning towards the ship with empty guns when we found ourselves close upon five native huts which as we had no means of defence created a little alarm. It turned, however, that they were vacant and we resumed our journey unmolested but at a rather quicker pace than we had hitherto walked…

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Monday 10 October 1836

[, on board the wrote.]

9 p.m. Monday, 10th October. In getting under weigh early this morning we were obliged to ship one of our anchors which had got foul of the other. This accident detained us some time. We again made sail at 10 a.m. and ran back about fifteen miles along the coast to the Southward with the […]

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Tuesday 11 October 1836

[, on board the wrote.]

Tuesday, 11th October

… About one we descried a boat steering for us and it was soon alongside when we found it contained little Stephens (our Nepean Bay friend) and Mr. Morphett a Land Agent who had come out in the “Cygnet” which vessel we were all delighted to hear had arrived safe on the 11th. of last month. They had, as we suspected, put into Rio for water. They have had two births on board, one since their arrival and one off the Island. Little Stevens has made the “[tooltip color=”grey” text=”Literally meaning honourable compensation, amende honourable was a public apology or reparation made to satisfy the honour of a person wronged.”]amende honourable[/tooltip]” since we left the Island by marrying a girl whom he had been living with in a discreditable manner. She is the sister of an industrious man by the name of “Bear” – the same whose wife became insane on the passage out.

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Wednesday 12 October 1836

[, on board the wrote.]

…The natives we left in care of the garden have proved honest and are here to welcome our return and claim their reward. Our garden is looking well the seeds having nearly all come up.

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Thursday 13 October 1836

[, on board the wrote.]

Thursday, 13th October.

The gale increased last night and blew with such violence that we were in momentary expectation of having our tent blown away. Jacob and I were the only two Officers on shore and in the night the carpenter and one of the labourers broached the rum cask and got dreadfully drunk. The latter was nearly dead this morning when I drew him out of the sand in which he was nearly buried and to make matters worse the tide rose so much higher than usual in the night that it floated our two boats that had been hauled up above high water mark. A box of carpenter’s tools was washed out of the surveying boat and nearly all of them are lost. Last night was the first I have slept on shore since we left England. A more uncomfortable one I never passed and it would not require many such to make me wish myself on board again. The [tooltip color=”grey” text=”A sailing vessel with two square-rigged masts.”] Brig [/tooltip] has ridden out the gale bravely which proves that the anchorage is good. The weather moderated about noon and at 4 p.m. the Captain and Lady with Pullen and party joined us and all things are going on smoothly. I sent two of our natives to hunt with our dogs and they have captured a fine kangaroo which will be sufficient to feed all hands for four days.

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Friday 14 October 1836

[, on board the wrote.]

Friday, 14th October.

We have been busy all day putting our tents to rights and have just returned from our native’s fire where they entertained us with their native dance called by them [tooltip color=”grey” text=”A word from the Sydney area, in common usage by the 1830s to refer to a dance or ceremony performed by Australian Aboriginal people.”]“Corroborey”[/tooltip]. It is chiefly characterized by feats of activity and violent contortions of muscle having nothing of grace in its composition. They dance it to a very monotonous harsh kind of vocal music, constantly repeating the same words. After the dance was over I played them an air on the flute. They seemed very much pleased but did not evince any great surprise.

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Saturday 15 October 1836

[, on board the wrote.]

Saturday, 15th October. Explored much the same as yesterday – went out with my gun in the morning but did not kill anything.

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Sunday 16 October 1836

[, on board the wrote.]

Sunday, 16th October.

The Brig being detained till today by contrary and strong winds got under weigh at daybreak for Nepean Bay, the wind being having moderated and the weather being very fine. Some of the natives showed much ingenuity this afternoon capturing several very fine fish of the salmon species. They descried the shoal from their huts – a distance of half a mile and upon a signal given each man dashed into the water with a small net under his arm and each succeeded in bringing out two, three or four enclosed in it in an incredibly short space of time. They immediately brought them to our tents and gave them to us, but we only took three from them, in return for which Colonel Light intends to give them a meal of beef. This tribe, i.e. the Cape Jervis tribe, have evinced much goodwill and not the slightest disposition to thieve. They are very useful to us fetching our wood and working in any way with great cheerfulness. Yesterday they were all rigged out in new jackets and trowsers and are promised each a new cap if they remain faithful. Contrary to the opinion of most people I think that with kind treatment they may be as easily civilized as any other race of savages. One of them who has lived with Wallend [Henry Wallen], the Chief Sealer, on the Island speaks a little English and understands much more, so he is a good interpreter. He generally accompanies me out shooting and fetches the game out of the water as well as any dog. He is much pleased when I kill a bird on the wing and expresses his surprise by the exclamation ‘Nurra-dourra”.

[ Read the full journal for: Sunday 16 October 1836 ]

Monday 17 October 1836

[, on board the wrote.]

… Stevens [Stephens] and Morphett called in just at dinner-time on their return from the Gulf. They are now with us and remain tonight. Bathed this morning for the first time.

[ Read the full journal for: Monday 17 October 1836 ]

Tuesday 18 October 1836

[, on board the wrote.]

Tuesday, 18th October.

The weather today is extremely warm and sultry – thermometer in the tent 100. Stevens [Stephens] and party left us this morning for Kangaroo Island after which I went out with my gun and Jacob and killed a brace of quail. We sent our dogs out with two of the native men this morning and they have just returned with a fine kangaroo. This is the third we have had since we encamped here. Colonel Light and I took our rods and lines down to the stream and caught five dogfish in less than two hours.

[ Read the full journal for: Tuesday 18 October 1836 ]

Wednesday 19 October 1836

[, on board the wrote.]

9 p.m. Wednesday, 19th October.

After our walk yesterday Jacob who was much fatigued and heated – contrary to my most urgent advise [advice] bathed in the fresh water stream which is extremely cold and in consequence is now confined to his bed suffering from a fever. I have not strayed far from the tents today but after the heat was over I again accompanied Colonel Light with Pullen to fish. Those we caught last evening were dressed for breakfast and proved extremely good tho’ small, and we have been equally successful this evening. The difference between the temperature of the mornings, evenings and mid-day is excessive. On Monday the range of the Thermometer in the tents was from 520 to 1050 .

[ Read the full journal for: Wednesday 19 October 1836 ]

Thursday 20 October 1836

[, on board the wrote.]

…I have been engaged with one of the natives this evening learning the language and teaching him in return words of English. They are very apt at pronouncing words but forget them the next minute. Jacob is still very ill.

[ Read the full journal for: Thursday 20 October 1836 ]

Friday 21 October 1836

[, on board the wrote.]

Friday, 21st October. Washing clothes all the forenoon – fished at the stream this afternoon – heavy rain, wind North.

[ Read the full journal for: Friday 21 October 1836 ]

Saturday 22 October 1836

[, on board the wrote.]

Saturday, 22nd October.

It rained hard the whole of last night and occasionally this forenoon. Until the tents were well wet the rain filtered thro’ them as thro’ a sieve so that our beds were rather damp. I went out alone with my gun after breakfast till dinnertime but killed nothing. After dinner I went with Colonel Light and Pullen to fish at the stream and we were successful. We sent our dogs out this morning and one of them was dreadfully torn by a kangaroo. I sewed the wound up and the poor creature seems much easier.

[ Read the full journal for: Saturday 22 October 1836 ]

Sunday 23 October 1836

[, on board the wrote.]

[Sunday 23 October?]

On Sunday morning Colonel Light, Pullen and I started on a walk towards Cape Jervis, but seeing from one of the hills that the ‘Rapid’ had just come into the Bay, we returned and found that she had brought over a great number of the Surveyors and Labourers with stores which we have been busy landing ever since. The Brig started this morning to bring the rest of the Surveyors and some of the females from the Island. When she returns the party will be divided – some remaining here, and the others going up to Holdfast Bay, the name given to our last anchorage, from our having ridden out two very serious gales there. With regard to myself, the present arrangements are that I remain with the party here and I have consequently got all my traps on shore. The heat in the day is excessive, and the flies, the greatest pests imaginable, crawling incessantly to the eyes, and if not immediately dislodged, blowing there.

[ Read the full journal for: Sunday 23 October 1836 ]

Monday 31 October 1836

[, on board the wrote.]

Nothing worth noting has occurred since I last wrote. My time has been employed chiefly as follows. The mornings, in shooting with Claughton, and my evenings in reading a little, washing a little and idling a great deal. Pullen came over in the surveying boat on Saturday bringing with him Captain Lipson, the Harbour-Master. They returned yesterday. This morning I was up to my eyes in flour making a pudding with birds shot by Claughton and myself. It is my first attempt and is intended for tomorrow’s dinner – “The proof of the pudding will be etc.”

[ Read the full journal for: Monday 31 October 1836 ]

Saturday 5 November 1836

[, on board the wrote.]

The last three days being almost maddened by the flies, I have been building myself a hut which will in some measure keep off these persevering tormentors. As the heat is excessive in the middle of the day and I have nearly half a mile to fetch my wood I fear it will be an endless job. The [tooltip color=”grey” text=”A sailing vessel with two square-rigged masts.”] Brig [/tooltip] arrived from Kangaroo Island with the rest of the Surveyors etc. on Wednesday evening. The party is now divided into two – one of which sailed yesterday at 1 p.m. in the [tooltip color=”grey” text=”A sailing vessel with two square-rigged masts.”] brig [/tooltip] for Holdfast Bay where that division will for the present be stationed. We are in momentary expectation of the arrival of Pullen who remained behind at the Island with the hatch boat to bring over Dr. Wright of the “Cygnet” who is detained at a bad case of midwifery. Colonel Light has appointed Dr. Wright to the Holdfast Bay station and I remain in care of the Rapid Bay one. When Pullen arrives Colonel Light will join the [tooltip color=”grey” text=”A sailing vessel with two square-rigged masts.”] brig [/tooltip] with him and proceed round the Gulf and then to Port Lincoln leaving Maria here under my care.

[ Read the full journal for: Saturday 5 November 1836 ]

Sunday 6 November 1836

[, on board the wrote.]

Sunday, 6th November. This morning have been engaged at my hut and until it is finished I am afraid I shall be compelled by the heat and flies to labour on the Sabbath, for which I hope to find pardon hereafter. At six this evening a ship hove in sight. Colonel Light went out in […]

[ Read the full journal for: Sunday 6 November 1836 ]

Monday 7 November 1836

[, on board the wrote.]

Just as I had received my letters this morning and was eagerly opening the first, a message arrived for me to attend a labour. Mrs. Hoare, a wife of a labourer. She is safely delivered of a fine boy who, at my request, is to be named “Rapid”. I was not detained long and again returned to read of all that was dear to me, and when I was assured of their welfare and health the happiness of that moment I would not have exchanged for millions. One of the labourers, Heath, in fighting, fractured the first metacarpal bone of the right hand. I have now reduced it and he is comfortable. Another man, Bristow, is under my care with a dreadfully inflamed finger from a fishbone wound. This shows a great disposition to [tooltip color=”grey” text=”flake off – usually refers to dead tissue”] slough [/tooltip]and an amputation is not improbable…

[ Read the full journal for: Monday 7 November 1836 ]

Tuesday 8 November 1836

[, on board the wrote.]

…Pullen arrived in the surveying boat this evening and had it not been for the timely assistance of the natives would have been drowned in swimming ashore through the surf. The “Cygnet” passed our Bay on her way up the Gulf. Captain Rolls is taking this trip to bring his accounts with Kingston to an issue which are very complicated. Mr. Kingston seems to shrink from the investigation and his behaviour is censured by high and low. He is universally disliked for his despotism and upstart tyranny.

[ Read the full journal for: Tuesday 8 November 1836 ]

Wednesday 9 November 1836

[, on board the wrote.]

Wednesday, 9th November. Pullen left us again to join Colonel Light at Holdfast Bay. It blew so hard yesterday that one of our Sealer’s dingy that he was towing over for us to fish with broke adrift and was lost, a great disappointment to all hands as we have now no means of procuring fish. […]

[ Read the full journal for: Wednesday 9 November 1836 ]

Thursday 10 November 1836

[, on board the wrote.]

This day I have endeavoured to make up for past idleness and have been right manfully at my hut which is rapidly progressing.

[ Read the full journal for: Thursday 10 November 1836 ]

Tuesday 15 November 1836

[, on board the wrote.]

Tuesday, 15th November. Walked this morning with Lipson to the next valley where we spent the forenoon in shooting for the pot. We were pretty successful shooting Parrots and Lowries of enough for two large puddings, but were so much fatigued that neither of us were able to work at our huts this afternoon. The […]

[ Read the full journal for: Tuesday 15 November 1836 ]

Wednesday 16 November 1836

[, on board the wrote.]

Nothing worth notice has occurred since Friday until yesterday which Lipson and I spent shooting and fishing in the next valley. My time has on the other days been variously employed working at my hut when the weather would permit, and lying down with a book in the middle of the day. The heat has been excessive these last two days, the thermometer in the tents yesterday being at [tooltip color=”grey” text=”About 48 Degrees Celsius.”] 1180 [/tooltip]. We have no mosquitoes in Rapid Bay but the flies are the most torturing of torments, alighting by hundreds on the face and creeping into the ears, eyes and nose, thus keeping one in a constant fever. I gave 5/- for an old gauze veil which acted as a defence against the brutes but rendered the heat almost suffocating, which last evil I willingly endured to be rid of the first. I was unfortunate enough yesterday to lose my veil and my poor face is again doomed to be victimised. We did not return from our sport yesterday till night had set in when, on reaching the hills we were alarmed by seeing a great part of the valley of our encampment in flames which were rapidly spreading in the direction of the tents. On our arrival we were informed that the fire was accidental and arose from one of the labourers imprudently setting fire to some grass on ground that he was about to dig. The breeze, however, which caused the flames to spread so rapidly covering more than two miles of country, happily died away before midnight and the fire gradually subsided. The sight from the hills was grand in the extreme, completely illuminating our settlement and the effect of the glare reflecting on the snow-white tents was as beautiful as it was strange.

[ Read the full journal for: Wednesday 16 November 1836 ]

Thursday 17 November 1836

[, on board the wrote.]

Thursday, 17th November. This morning being quite ennye [?] and being unable to get to my tools, I took my gun and Beppo and went in search of quails of which I succeeded in killing three brace and returned to dinner quite exhausted by the heat. I have just shot a native dog that I […]

[ Read the full journal for: Thursday 17 November 1836 ]

Friday 18 November 1836

[, on board the wrote.]

9 p.m. Friday, 18th November.

An idle day, the tools being still in use by the surveying party. I shot a few quails yesterday which with those of yesterday will make us a nice pudding – a thing not to be sneezed at in this infant Colony, especially as we are getting tired of kangaroo which as the heat of the weather increases gets poor and rank. This afternoon I cleaned my gun, smoked and read and am now going to bed, leaving the gentlemen surveyors to sup off roasted potatoes of Kangaroo Island growth.

[ Read the full journal for: Friday 18 November 1836 ]

Saturday 19 November 1836

[, on board the wrote.]

Poor Jacob, a good-hearted but unsophisticated companion of ours, is in a peck of trouble having met with a chapter of accidents in the night. About 1 a.m. he came in his shirt and night-cap to my tent to borrow a loaded gun to shoot the other native dog which he said had been several times into his tent. Hardy, who was sleeping in my tent, happened to have his gun loaded and lent it to him. We shortly after heard the report and soon after poor Jacob, muttering to himself, made his appearance quite broken hearted, for lo instead of the native dog, he had killed a favourite little bitch, heavy with pup, belonging to Hardy and to make things worse had broken the borrowed gun and has been obliged to purchase it. His misfortune did not end here for in his flurry he tumbled over, or through, a chair belonging to another Officer. The Ghost of Hamlet is a fool to the figure, long pale Jacob cut on entering our tent in the above-named costume with the moon shining on his white visage and a huge naked sword preceding him at arm’s length all ready for assault and battery.

[ Read the full journal for: Saturday 19 November 1836 ]

Monday 21 November 1836

[, on board the wrote.]

Yesterday was passed in a quiet peaceable kind of way, none of us leaving our home. The heat exceeded anything we have as yet felt. The mosquitoes made their appearance at Rapid Bay and were very numerous. The thermometer in the tents was 1230 at mid-day and below 600 in the evening. This morning at daybreak I rose to join the Surveyors who were going to take a long [way?] round but being of straying habits I lost them before I had been away an hour and pursued my course with my gun for a companion. I shot a great many birds chiefly of the Parrot tribe which are very good eating – Being very much fatigued about mid-day, and thirsty in proportion to the heat, I was lothe to leave a stream that I found between N.W. High Bluff and Cape Jervis and consequently determined on shooting my way along it to a small beach where it emptied itself. The cliffs each side were so perpendicular that I was obliged to walk in the bed of the stream for more than a mile knee deep in mud and water. I was weary and well nigh exhausted and just had the little beach with the fresh sea breeze within my grasp where I intended resting until the cool of the evening when lo I found the very haven of my repose occupied by a tribe of strange natives. Being [tooltip color=”grey” text=”Latin, meaning alone.”] solus [/tooltip] and not at all inclined to be eaten I quickly retraced my steps and as good luck would have it, unperceived by the black gentry who, I have learnt from our Sealer, belong to Encounter Bay. I arrived at our camp at 4 p.m. more dead than alive but am now considerably [refreshed?] by my tea of which I have swallowed six cups.

[ Read the full journal for: Monday 21 November 1836 ]

Thursday 24 November 1836

[, on board the wrote.]

…Tuesday I felt very poorly and in the night was seized with a violent bowel complaint of which I have only now recovered, consequently yesterday was again a blank. Understand that Captain Light wished for the spot I had fixed upon for my hut, which is finished all but the thatch. I immediately gave it up to him with the frame and today I have three labourers getting under weigh with all speed. We have had for dinner today a mass of beautiful French beans. The first vegetables with the exception of radishes and cress grown in our garden. We shall soon be able to have green pease, and everything else looks very promising. We are still planting potatoes, but merely for seed, as the season is too far advanced for them to reach their full growth.

[ Read the full journal for: Thursday 24 November 1836 ]

Friday 25 November 1836

[, on board the wrote.]

The whole of this day I have been busy with the men at my hut and have now some hopes of getting it finished and not before it is wanted as we are all of us more or less sufferers from [tooltip color=”grey” text=”An inflammation of the eye.”] opthalmia [/tooltip], occasioned as I believe by the intense heat and glare of the tents in the day and the sudden cold in the evening.

[ Read the full journal for: Friday 25 November 1836 ]

Saturday 26 November 1836

[, on board the wrote.]

The “Rapid” hove in sight at 7 a.m. this morning and came to anchor at 3 p.m. Captain Light, Pullen and Claughton came on shore to dinner and informed us that there is every probability of the Capital being formed at Holdfast Bay, as, during the last cruize, many paramount advantages have been found, viz. the creek higher up forms a most splendid harbour ending in fresh water streams, one of which having from two to four [tooltip color=”grey” text=”A fathom is a measure of depth in the imperial system. One fathom is equal to six feet or 1.83 metres.”] fathoms [/tooltip] in it. It extends to within six miles of [the] Capital.

[ Read the full journal for: Saturday 26 November 1836 ]

Sunday 27 November 1836

[, on board the wrote.]

My birthday. Piping hot. Most of the “Rapid’s” on shore. I accompanied Captain Light and Mr. Finnis on a walk up to the hills after dinner and finished the evening at the hut of the Surveyors with which I was invited to take tea and cake – the latter made and sent by Mrs. Lisson [Lipson?].

[ Read the full journal for: Sunday 27 November 1836 ]

Monday 28 November 1836

[, on board the wrote.]

Monday 28th November. The “Rapid” started at noon for Kangaroo Island to pick up Pullen who had gone with despatches for the “Africaine” bound to Van Dieman’s Land. The Brig then proceeds to Port Lincoln and is expected back in three weeks.

[ Read the full journal for: Monday 28 November 1836 ]

Friday 2 December 1836

[, on board the wrote.]

…Today I am again at work at my hut which progresses slowly, having lost the services of the native men who have taken it into their heads to leave us for a while, leaving their women behind. I enlisted three of the latter on Wednesday and found them very useful in carrying reeds for my thatch. The first dish of green pease was gathered yesterday from our garden. They relished exceedingly with a brace of wild fowl (red-bills) I killed the evening before. The temperature has been very moderate since my last notes on the thermometer.

[ Read the full journal for: Friday 2 December 1836 ]

Sunday 4 December 1836

[, on board the wrote.]

The heat is again oppressive having had yesterday and today one of the hot northerly winds which appear to be very frequent. A sealing cutter anchored in our Bay and disposed of a ton and a half of potatoes to us with chease (Colonial) and mutton and bird’s eggs which are very fine. I have today recommended a distribution of potatoes to the labourers as they are showing a disposition to scurvy. We were alarmed last night by observing a light in the offing which had the appearance of a vessel on fire, but which from not altering its bearing we were happily convinced was a conflagration on the opposite side of the Gulf. For the last week we have had fires on all sides of us, it being the season at which the natives set fire to the grass.

[ Read the full journal for: Sunday 4 December 1836 ]

Sunday 11 December 1836

[, on board the wrote.]

The last days I have been employed on alternate days shooting and working at my hut, which I had the extreme facility of removing to last night. On one of my shooting excursions I shot a[tooltip color=”grey” text=”old name for a brolga, so named because they were observed in pairs”] native companion [/tooltip]weighing 14 pounds. This bird much resembles a heron in the shape with the exception of the legs which like the emu’s are armed with three toes. The plumage on the back is speckled, not unlike the guinea-fowl and is white on the breast. The “Emu” called here on Friday on her way up the Gulf, having on board stock etc. brought by the “John Pirie” to Kangaroo Island. She left us yesterday at daybreak. We learnt from the Officers that of the six landed on Kangaroo Island to find their way on foot to Nepean Bay, four only have been found, and they were nearly exhausted by fatigue and famine. The two others, one of whom was a surgeon (Mr. Slater) have in all human probability perished. The weather during the week has been variable, having had two very sultry days with the hot northerly wind.

[ Read the full journal for: Sunday 11 December 1836 ]

Thursday 15 December 1836

[, on board the wrote.]

The “Rapid” arrived last night from Kangaroo Island and Port Lincoln, but it being late nobody landed till this morning. The “Buffalo” is not yet arrived with the governor, but Captain Light gives a most unfavourable report on Port Lincoln. The harbour when once gained is very fine, but it is extremely difficult of access and the land has a most forbidding aspect consisting of little else than stones and totally unfit for agriculture. They searched unsuccessfully for the Tablet in Memory’s Cove raised by Flinders to the memory of the Boat’s Crew lost there. Holdfast Bay is at length fixed upon for the seat of the Capital and a more advantageous spot it is impossible to select, both from its vicinity to a beautiful harbour and the fineness of the soil, with abundance of fresh water. Captain Light makes a start tomorrow for the settlement, but as he intends stretching over to the Western side of this Gulf he will probably be some days on the way. On the return of the “Africaine” which he has sent to Hobart Town for stock etc., it is Captain Light’s intention to remove us all to the Town where he has offered to renew my Engagement as a shore going Surgeon. My former one on board the “Rapid” being ended on the 31st. inst. of the present month (Dec. 1836). I was delighted to find that Captain Light had letters for me brought by the “Tam O’Shanter”. One from my Mother, another from Harriet and the third from my good friend – Major – the latter enclosing one to Mr. Neale which I have given to Captain Light to deliver to him at Holdfast Bay. My dear Mother and Sister wish me to return, but as I think there is a chance of my bettering myself here, I think it is right to make a trial.

[ Read the full journal for: Thursday 15 December 1836 ]

Friday 16 December 1836

[, on board the wrote.]

Friday, 16th December. The Brig started about mid-day and I have been busy making my hut comfortable, putting up bookshelves etc.

[ Read the full journal for: Friday 16 December 1836 ]

Saturday 17 December 1836

[, on board the wrote.]

After breakfast I went off in the whale-boat left by Captain Light, to catch fish, but not knowing the ground we were unsuccessful, catching only three snappers and one rock-fish. After dinner I started with my gun, but was equally unsuccessful. So we stand a good chance of having [tooltip color=”grey” text=”Slang, meaning salted beef or pork.”] salt junk [/tooltip] for Sunday’s dinner.

[ Read the full journal for: Saturday 17 December 1836 ]

Sunday 25 December 1836

[, on board the wrote.]

Christmas Day. Reminds us of Old England and our friends warming their knees by a rousing fire, with all other Christmas comforts. Here we are broiling under a sun nearly vertical and half of us nearly blind with [tooltip color=”grey” text=”An infectious inflammation of the eye. Also called Trachoma or Egyptian Ophthalmia.”] Opthalmia [/tooltip] which I hear from the Sealers who visit this Coast always prevails during the Summer months. It is very distressing and of the purulent kind. The small flies, which when living in the tents were maddening, are, I am happy to say, much less troublesome in the huts, but the large disgusting blow-fly is very active, actually depositing living maggots on the plate you are eating off and making no distinction between fresh meat and the salt ship provisions. One of our sheep, the first, was killed last night after sunset and my ration which was served out at 6 this morning altho’ carefully wrapped in a towel was actually crawling by 10 and it has taken me nearly an hour to wash it. Nothing worthy of mention has occurred this last week with the exception of the days when I brave the heat and sally forth with my gun. My time is passed principally within my hut reading etc. The whale-boat left here by Captain Light which was to have been such a source of comfort, has, on the contrary, created disappointment, as we have had no success whatever among the finny tribe. Our dinner today (that is Jacob’s and mine) will consist of the above named piece of mutton, some parrots and pigeons, killed, plucked and cleaned by me and a plum pudding made by Jacob, and all I have to say is that I sincerely hope my dear friends at home are spending a Merrier Christmas than we are here. If not, I pity them.

[ Read the full journal for: Sunday 25 December 1836 ]

Tuesday 27 December 1836

[, on board the wrote.]

Tuesday, 27th December. As yesterday I have remained at home today. This afternoon we heard guns firing in the offing and on looking out we descried a large ship about ten miles off sailing up the Gulf in the direction of Holdfast Bay. We are all of the opinion that it is the “Buffalo”.

[ Read the full journal for: Tuesday 27 December 1836 ]

Wednesday 28 December 1836

[, on board the wrote.]

Our conjectures with regard to the ship yesterday were strengthened this morning by hearing distant guns, as of a salute given and returned in the direction of the settlement, and we have come to the conclusion that the Governor is safely arrived and that his salute was returned by the land battery brought by the “Tam O’ Shanter”. I have been shooting all day and have killed nearly five brace of quails which is considered as excellent sport, but in my opinion the best of the sport is in the eating. Our life here is exceedingly monotonous and uninteresting as we are completely debarred from news. We are all very anxious to remove to Holdfast Bay.

[ Read the full journal for: Wednesday 28 December 1836 ]

Thursday 29 December 1836

[, on board the wrote.]

I have been out twice after a flock of “Cape Barron” geese which have been in our neighbourhood this morning, but it appears they have learnt a wholesome fear of man as it was impossible to get within shot of them. We killed a sheep last night which turned out better than the first. We had the leg roasted today and a better dinner I have not made since I left England. Our garden produced us an excellent salad which with a dish of tolerable potatoes made us one of those feasts which come “few and far between”.

[ Read the full journal for: Thursday 29 December 1836 ]